Napoleon III

<!–^~^441|left|Napoleon III^~^–> Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 – January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the Kingdom of Holland. He was elected President (1848-1852) of the Second Republic of France and subsequently Emperor (1852-1870), reigning as Napoleon III (Second French Empire). In a situation that resembles the case of Louis XVIII of France, the numbering of Napoleon’s reign assumes the existence of a legitimate Napoleon II of […]

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Vaux-le-Vicomte

[img]274|left|Vaux-le-Vicomte[/img]Once a small castle located between the royal residences of Vincennes and Fontainebleau in France, the estate of Vaux-le-Vicomte was purchased by a 26 year-old parliamentarian, Nicolas Fouquet in 1641. Fifteen years later, construction began on what was then the finest chateau and garden in France. This achievement was brought about through the collaboration of three men of genius whom Fouquet had chosen for the task: the architect Le Vau, the painter-decorator Le Brun and the landscape gardener Le NÙtre. […]

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Gaul

Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Roman name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine. In English the word Gaul also means one of the inhabitants of that region in ancient times. The Gauls sacked Rome circa 390 BC, destroying all Roman historical records to that point. Roman rule in Gaul was established by Julius Caesar, who defeated the […]

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Sports: Anelka close to France reconciliation

“Nicolas Anelka would be welcomed back into the international fold by French Football Federation president Claude Simonet.

The Manchester City striker has revealed he would be keen on an immediate return to the France squad.

With Euro 2004 o

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Paris Opera

784|left|Exterior of the Palais Garnier.|The Palais Garnier is a grand landmark at the northern end of the Avenue de l’Opera in Paris, France. It is regarded as one of the architectural masterpieces of its time. Built in the Neo-Baroque style, it is the thirteenth theatre to house the Paris Opera since it was founded by Louis XIV in 1669. It was often also called the Paris Opera, but since the building of the Opera Bastille in 1989, it is referred […]

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Mona Lisa – La Joconde

[img]312|left|Mona Lisa[/img]Mona Lisa (also known as the Monna Lisa; Italian La Gioconda; French La Joconde), is a painting by Leonardo da Vinci showing a woman with an introspective expression-perhaps smiling would be the wrong word. It is the most famous painting in the world, going so far as to be iconic of painting, art, and even visual images in general. No other work of art is so romanticized, celebrated, or reproduced. It was accomplished between 1503 and 1506. Today it […]

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Cathars

Catharism was a Gnostic heretical movement that originated around the middle of the 12th century AD. It existed throughout much of Western Europe, but its home was in Languedoc, in southern France. The name Cathars probably originated from catharos, the pure ones, maybe also from cattus cat which they were supposed to sexually abuse during their ceremonies, and one of the first recorded uses is Eckbert von Schˆnau who wrote on heretics from Cologne in 1181: Hos nostra germania catharos […]

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Gustave Eiffel

Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923), French architect. † [img]304|left|Gustave Eiffel[/img]Born Alexandre Gustave Eiffel in Dijon, CÙte-d’Or, France, he is most famous for building the Eiffel Tower, built from 1887-1889 for the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition in Paris, France, as well as the armature for the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, USA. He also designed ironwork for bridges. Gustave Eiffel also designed La Ruche in Paris, that would, like the Eiffel Tower, become a city […]

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Jules Verne

(February 8, 1828

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Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229) was part of the Roman Catholic Church’s efforts to crush the Cathars. The Cathars were especially numerous in southern France, in the region of Languedoc. They were termed Albigensians because of the movements presence in and around the city of Albi. Political control in Languedoc was split amongst many local lords and town councils, the area was relatively lightly oppressed and reasonably advanced. The crusading efforts can be divided into a number of periods, the first […]

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