The French Revolution

<!–^~^440|right|Louis XVI^~^–>France in 1789 was one of the richest and most powerful nations in Europe. Only in Great Britain and the Netherlands did the common people have more freedom and less chance of arbitrary punishment. Nonetheless, a popular rebellion would first to bring the regime of King Louis XVI of France under control of a constitution, then to depose, imprison, try, and execute the king and, later, his wife Marie Antoinette. Many factors led to the revolution; to some extent […]

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Vercingetorix

Vercingetorix (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, led the great Gallic revolt against the Romans in 53 and 52 BC. His name in Gaulish means “over-king” (ver-rix) of warriors (cingetos). As described in Julius Caesar’s Gallic_Wars, Rome had secured domination over the Celtic tribes beyond the Provincia Narbonensis (modern day Provence) through a careful strategy of divide and conquer. Vercingetorix ably unified the tribes, adopted the policy of retreating to natural fortifications, and undertook an early example of scorched_earth […]

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Gustave Eiffel

Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923), French architect. † [img]304|left|Gustave Eiffel[/img]Born Alexandre Gustave Eiffel in Dijon, CÙte-d’Or, France, he is most famous for building the Eiffel Tower, built from 1887-1889 for the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition in Paris, France, as well as the armature for the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, USA. He also designed ironwork for bridges. Gustave Eiffel also designed La Ruche in Paris, that would, like the Eiffel Tower, become a city […]

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Valois Dynasty

The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France. They were descendants of Charles of Valois, the second son of King Philip III of France. Philippe VI, the Fortunate 1328-1350 Jean II, the Good 1350-1364 Charles V, the Wise 1364-1380 Charles VI, the Well-Beloved 1380-1422 Charles VII, the Victortius 1422-1461 Louis XI 1461-1483 Charles VIII , the Affable 1483-1498 Louis XII, the Father of His People 1498-1515 Fran

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Napoleon III

<!–^~^441|left|Napoleon III^~^–> Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 – January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the Kingdom of Holland. He was elected President (1848-1852) of the Second Republic of France and subsequently Emperor (1852-1870), reigning as Napoleon III (Second French Empire). In a situation that resembles the case of Louis XVIII of France, the numbering of Napoleon’s reign assumes the existence of a legitimate Napoleon II of […]

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Wars of Religion

The religious wars began with overt hostilities in 1562 and lasted until the Edict of Nantes in 1598. It was warfare that devastated a generation, although conducted in rather desultory, inconclusive way. Although religion was certainly the basis for the conflict, it was much more than a confessional dispute. “Une foi, un loi, un roi” (one faith, one law, one king). This traditional saying gives some indication of how the state, society, and religion were all bound up together in […]

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Radio Stations

Private radios have only been authorized in France since 1982. As with television, the number of private radios increased dramatically since then.

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Revolution Era

The 18th century’s Enlightment brought thinkers such as Voltaire and Rousseau to struggle against the principles of the old regime and absolutism…

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Foreign Trade

France is the world’s second largest exporter of services and farm products and fourth largest exporter of goods…

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Introduction

France is nonetheless extremely diverse: it concentrates a wealth of scenery, regional identities each with their own particular joie de vivre defined by cultural and historic differences.

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