Napoleonic Era

The Revolution ends in 1799 when Napoleon Bonaparte entered Paris and was crowned First Consul at the age of thirty…

Read More »

Research & Development

<!–^~^70|right|^~^–>National R & D expenditure amounts to 190 billion francs ($38 billion) i.e. 2.5% of GDP. The public sector finances 51% of it and is responsible for operating (building maintenance, salaries, laboratory equipment) the major national research centres, which include the CNRS (all fields), INSERM (medicine), INRA (agronomy), etc.. Privately-financed research focuses on advanced technology sectors such as electronics, aeronautical engineering, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and automobile construction. France ranks fourth among OECD countries for research, after Japan, Germany and the United […]

Read More »

Radio Stations

Private radios have only been authorized in France since 1982. As with television, the number of private radios increased dramatically since then.

Read More »

19th Century

The industrial expansion was not slowed by the war and continued at a fast pace. To commemorate the centenial of the French Revolution, the Eiffel Tower was constructed during the Universal Exhibition of 1889…

Read More »