Research & Development
<!–^~^70|right|^~^–>National R & D expenditure amounts to 190 billion francs ($38 billion) i.e. 2.5% of GDP.
The public sector finances 51% of it and is responsible for operating (building maintenance, salaries, laboratory equipment) the major national research centres, which include the CNRS (all fields), INSERM (medicine), INRA (agronomy), etc..
Privately-financed research focuses on advanced technology sectors such as electronics, aeronautical engineering, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and automobile construction.
France ranks fourth among OECD countries for research, after Japan, Germany and the United States.